Can You Claim for a Data Breach Near Miss?

As technology continues to advance, so does the risk of data breaches and the potential exposure of sensitive data. The aftermath of a data breach can be devastating, with individuals and organisations left vulnerable to identity theft, financial losses, and other serious consequences. However, what about those instances when a breach is narrowly avoided, a data breach near miss? Can individuals who experience such close calls still claim compensation for the potential harm they may have suffered?

Determining whether a near miss qualifies for compensation is not always straightforward. It may not be immediately apparent whether an individual has suffered harm as a result of the breach. Factors such as the nature of the information involved, the actions taken by the responsible party, and the potential for future harm must be carefully evaluated.

Data Breach Near MissIn this guide, we will explore the legal aspects of data breach near misses, explaining the rights and options available to individuals who have experienced such incidents. We will discuss the relevant laws and regulations, the burden of proof required to establish a claim, and the potential compensation available. Furthermore, we will provide practical steps and guidance on how to proceed if you believe you have a case.

If you suspect that you have been a victim of a data breach near miss, we encourage you to reach out to a claims advisor who specialises in data breach cases. They can assess your situation, guide you through the claims process, and help determine whether you may be entitled to compensation.

What Is A Data Breach?

A data breach refers to an unauthorised access, acquisition, or disclosure of personal or sensitive information. It occurs when individuals or entities gain access to data without proper authorisation, often with malicious intent. This sensitive information can include personal details such as names, addresses, financial records, login credentials, or any other data that can be used to identify or harm individuals.

Data breaches can occur through various means, including cyberattacks, hacking incidents, phishing scams, employee negligence or misconduct, physical theft of devices or documents, or vulnerabilities in computer systems or networks. Hackers or malicious actors may exploit security weaknesses to infiltrate databases, networks, or systems, compromising the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of the stored data.

The consequences of a data breach can be severe and far-reaching. Individuals affected by a data breach may suffer financial losses, identity theft, reputational damage, emotional distress, or even legal repercussions. Additionally, organisations responsible for safeguarding personal data may face legal consequences, regulatory penalties, and damage to their brand reputation.

What Is A Data Breach Near Miss?

A data breach near miss is a situation where an unauthorised individual gains access to personal or sensitive data, but the breach is prevented or detected before significant harm occurs. In other words, it is a close call where the breach is narrowly avoided, but there was still a potential risk of harm to the affected individuals or organisations.

Examples of data breach near misses may include:

  1. An employee accidentally sends an email containing sensitive information to the wrong recipient but realises the mistake and retrieves the email before it is read.
  2. A hacker attempts to breach a company’s network but is detected by the security system before they can access any sensitive data.
  3. A company’s database containing personal information is exposed online due to a misconfiguration, but a security researcher discovers and alerts the company before any malicious actors access the data.
  4. A company’s server is infected with malware, but the IT team detects and removes the malware before it can cause any damage or data exfiltration.
  5. A phishing email containing a malicious link is sent to an employee, but the employee recognises the scam and does not click on the link, preventing potential malware infection or data theft.

It is essential to take near misses seriously and investigate them thoroughly to prevent similar incidents from happening in the future.

Could I Claim For A Data Breach Near Miss?

Assessing your eligibility to make a data breach claim involves evaluating various factors, including the circumstances of the breach, applicable laws such as the Data Protection Act (DPA) and the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), and the harm caused as a result of the breach. Here’s a breakdown of the key elements:

Wrongful action

To make a data breach claim, it is typically necessary to demonstrate that someone (an individual, organisation, or entity) acted wrongfully or breached their legal obligations regarding data protection. This could include instances of negligence, inadequate security measures, failure to implement appropriate safeguards, or intentional misconduct.

Breach of personal data

A successful claim requires showing that there was a breach of personal data. This refers to unauthorised access, disclosure, alteration, or loss of personal information. The breach could result from a cyberattack, internal data mishandling, third-party involvement, or other factors that compromise the security and confidentiality of personal data.

Demonstrating harm

In order to establish a claim, it is essential to demonstrate that the data breach caused you harm. Harm can take various forms, including financial losses, identity theft, emotional distress, reputational damage, or adverse effects on personal or professional relationships. It is important to gather evidence and document the specific harm suffered as a direct result of the breach.


There must be a clear link between the wrongful action and the harm suffered. It should be evident that the breach directly caused or significantly contributed to the harm experienced, and that it would not have occurred otherwise.

When considering whether to pursue a data breach claim, it is advisable to consult with a data breach lawyer or claims advisor who specialises in data breach claims. They can assess the specifics of your case, evaluate the legal merits, and provide guidance on the potential for a successful claim.

What Can I Claim For?

If you have a valid data breach claim, you may be entitled to claim damages to compensate you for the harm suffered as a result of the breach. Here are some examples of the damages that you may be able to claim:

  1. If the breach has resulted in financial losses, such as unauthorised transactions or identity theft, you may be able to claim compensation for the losses incurred, including the cost of restoring your credit score or account balances.
  2. A data breach can also cause emotional distress or psychological harm. If you have suffered anxiety, depression, or other mental health issues as a result of the breach, you may be able to claim damages for this harm.
  3. A data breach can also result in a loss of privacy, which can have significant personal and professional consequences. If the breach has led to the disclosure of sensitive information, such as medical records, confidential financial information or other sensitive personal data, you may be able to claim damages for the loss of privacy and the associated impact.
  4. A data breach can also cause reputational harm, particularly if the breach involves personal or sensitive information. If the breach has resulted in damage to your reputation or standing in the community, you may be able to claim damages for the harm suffered.

An experienced data breach lawyer or claims advisor can help you evaluate your case and determine the potential damages that may be available to you.

No Win No Fee Data Breach Claims

If you have a valid data breach claim but are concerned about the upfront costs of legal representation, there is an option to obtain legal support through a Conditional Fee Agreement (CFA), also known as a No Win No Fee arrangement. This allows you to access legal assistance without having to pay upfront fees.

Under a Conditional Fee Agreement, you enter into an agreement with your solicitor, where they agree to provide legal services for your data breach claim. If your claim is unsuccessful, you generally won’t be required to pay for their work. However, if your claim is successful, your solicitor may be entitled to a success fee, which is a legally limited percentage of the compensation awarded.

If you believe you have a data breach claim and are interested in pursuing it under a No Win No Fee arrangement, we encourage you to reach out to us. Our team can assess your case, determine if you meet the criteria for a CFA, and connect you with a suitable data breach solicitor who can provide the legal support you need without upfront fees.

Data Breach Near Miss Further Guidance

Information Commissioner’s Office – Learn more about data protection from the ICO.

Enforcement Action – Learn how the ICO enforces data protection law.

Personal Data Breaches – Find out more about what a data breach is.

What Are The Risks Of Data Breaches? – Learn what harm a data breach could cause.

Data Breach FAQs – Here, we answer common questions about data breaches.

How Much Compensation Can I Expect To Receive For A Data Breach Claim? – Learn about compensation.